The essence of Plato's philosophy

  • ۱۱۹

The ESSENCE OF PLATO'S PHILOSOPHY

CONTENTS:
TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE 7
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION 9
PREFACE 13
INTRODUCTION 21
1. Plato's life, p. 21
2. His literary activity, p. 27
3. Summary statement of the contents of the book, p. 34
PART ONE THE DIALOGUES OF PLATO'S YOUTH AND EARLY
MANHOOD TO THE SECOND SICILIAN JOURNEY (367)
I THE ETHICAL CONTENT OF THE EARLY DIALOGUES 37
1. The Lesser Hippias, p. 37
2. The Laches, p. 40
3. The Protagoras, p. 42
4. The Charmides, p. 45
5. The Euthyphro, p. 46
6. The Apology, p. 47
7. The Crito, p. 48
8. The Gorgias, p. 49 (Comparison of the Protagoras and the Gorgias;
ethics as the doctrine of duties, of virtue, and of goods, pp. 57 f.)
9. The Greater Hippias, p. 61
10. The Euthydemus, p. 62
11. The Menexenus, p. 62
12. The Lysis, p. 63
13. The Symposium, p. 66
14. The Phaedo, p. 68
15. The Republic, p. 71
The constitution of the state and that of the soul, p. 73
The relation between virtue and happiness, p. 75
The Idea of the good, p. 80
Eros, p. 85

II. ONTOLOGY AND EPISTEMOLOGY OF THE EARLIER
DIALOGUES (TO 367) 87
1. The Phaedo, p. 87 (the „Idea”, pp. 89 ff.)
2. The Symposium, p. 95
3. The Cratylus, p. 97
4. The Laches, the Protagoras, the Euthyphro, p. 100; the Greater Hippias
and the Euthydemus, p. 101
5. The Meno, p. 102 (Comparison of the Meno and the other dialogues,
thus far discussed, with the Phaedo, p. 100)
6. The Republic, p. 105
(Degrees of Being and of knowledge, pp. 107 ff.)
7. The Phaedrus, p. 109
(The myth about the soul's journey through the heavens, p. 110)
8. Summary statement and critical considerations, p. 111
9. Comparison with modern thinkers (Goethe, Schuppe, Chamberlain),
pp. 115 ff.
10. Learning as recollection, p. 120 (Plato's use of the myth)
11. Being, Becoming, Non-Being as objects of knowledge, of opinion, of
ignorance (not-knowing), pp. 123 ff
12. The Idea of the good again considered, p. 129
13. The turning-point between the Phaedrus and the Theaetetus, p. 133
14. The Theaetetus, knowledge is not identical with sense-perception,
nor with opinion, nor with correct opinion., pp. 135 ff.
15. Supplement to these negative results. The moral realm; the philosopher
and the man of affairs, pp. 140 ff.
PART TWO THE DIALOGUES OF LATER YEARS FROM THE SECOND
SICILIAN JOURNEY ON (AFTER 367)
I. EPISTEMOLOGY AND ONTOLOGY OF THE LATER DIALOGUES 147
A. THE PARMENIDES 147
1. The content, p. 147
2. Exposition and objections, p. 153
3. Classes of Ideas, p. 158
4. Part II of the Parmenides, p. 161
5. Result of the discussion and a comparison with other dialogues, p.
164

B. THE SOPHIST 167
1. Conceptions of Being, p. 167
2. The meaning of the predication of Being, p. 170
3. Hints at a more profound definition of Being, p. 174
4. The „friends of the Ideas”, p. 175
C. THE STATESMAN 176
1. Two types of comparative attributes; pure and applied science, p.
178. (Law of development, p. 179; teleology, p. 180)
2. The „Idea” as the norm, p. 181 (Truth, p. 183)
3. Comprehensive meaning of the Idea, p. 184
D. THE PHILEBUS 189
1. Four classes of reality (the rationality of the cause of development, p.
189)
2. The relation of unity (monads) to plurality, p. 194
E. THE TIMAEUS 198
1. The problem of explaining the cosmos, p. 198
2. Teleological and aetiological explanations, p. 200; principle of irrationality
(space). The number of elements (similarity with Philebus, p.
202). The difference between rational knowledge and true opinion
proves the difference of the content in question, p. 203
3. Comparison with earlier dialogues, p. 204
4. Difficulties in determining the irrational. (Difference between Timaeus
and Philebus), p. 207
5. Inferences with reference to the old theory of Ideas, p. 211
6. Ideas of different orders and degrees; their subjective and objective
nature, p. 213 (Ideas as prototypes, p. 215 f)
7. The place of the Ideas, p. 218
8. The unity between the Timaeus and the other dialogues
of Plato's old age, p. 223
9. The Laws, p. 223 (Retrospect and prospect)
10. Comparison with Meinong, p. 224
11. Comparison with Husserl, p. 226
II. PLATO'S LOGIC 230
Introduction
1. The Laws of Thought, p. 232
2. The categories (and the negative definition), p. 233
3. Formation of concepts and the system of concepts, p. 236 (Rules governing
the formation of concepts, p. 242; essence, p. 244 ff)
4. Deduction and manner of proof., p. 249; relation of doctrine of Ideas
to logic, p. 253; determining the definition of knowledge, vainly attempted
in the Theaetetus, p. 255; inference by analogy, p. 256

III. PLATO'S PHILOSOPHY OF NATURE 258
1. Central thoughts, p. 258
2. Fundamental concepts of physics (matter, mass, gravity,
direction, motion), p. 261
3. Types of motion, p. 263
4. Types of motion determined by the fundamental nature of things, p.
264
5. Relation of matter to space, p. 266
6. Difficulties inherent in the concepts of space and time, p. 267
7. Probability instead of truth, p. 269
8. Botany and zoology, p. 271
9. The soul as principle of motion, p. 271
10. Astronomy, p. 272
11. Geognosy, p. 275
12. Mathematics, p. 276
13. Teleology, p. 279 (Comparison with Kant and Laplace)
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS
14. Parts of the soul, etc., p. 281
15. Thinking, perception, retention, and forgetting, p. 282
16. Sense-stimuli (psychic levels), p. 285
17. Fusion of sensations (e.g., anger, jealousy, love's longing, the
comic). Desires as source of pleasure (and presupposition for virtue and
vice); intermediate condition between pain and pleasure; causes of contrasts
; true and false (pure and impure) sensations, p. 288
18. Happiness, p. 292
19. Love (its description in the Symposium and in the Phaedrus), p. 294
20. Types of character. Concept of the soul, p. 300
IV. THE PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY OF THE LATER DIALOGUES 303
A. ETHICS 303
1. Insight and faith (holiness and duty), p. 303
2. Scale of values, p 304
3. Particular virtues, p. 306
4. The moral ideal, p. 308
5. Civic and philosophic virtue, p. 309
6. Vices, p. 312
7. Eudemonism and intellectual determinism in the Laws, p. 313
8. The fundamental principles of penal justice, p. 315
(Involuntariness of bad actions)
9. Comparison with other ethical systems, p. 319

B. POLITICS 319
The constitution of the state according to the Republic
1. Only the most talented and most carefully educated in the knowledge
of human nature and human problems are experts and are called upon
to rule, p. 320 (Progressive perfection of the well-ordered state, p. 323 f.)
2. The three classes of the state, p. 324
3. Guardians have no family responsibilities, p. 326; equal rights for
men and women, p. 327
4. Objections, p. 328 (the majority of human beings neglected; slavery;
community of wives and children)
5. The ideal state and reality, p. 332 (Defective forms of the state, p. 335
f.)
6. The Statesman: Philosopher and statesman contrasted with the Sophist,
p. 337; comparison with Republic, p. 339 (Six types of the temporary
state; legislation, p. 339)
7. The Laws: Fundamental principles (like those of the Republic and of
the Statesman), p. 340
8. Historical studies reveal that the happiness of the state depends on
the right combination of monarchy and democracy, p. 342
9. Population and economic structure, p. 342
10. Schedule of work; compulsory education; games and festivals, p.
344
11. Theory of education (supervision of art by the state), p. 346
12. Selection and promotion of the ablest (council of state), p. 349
13. Laws governing marriage and the family; the position of women, p.
350
14. Offices of the state, p. 352
15. Details concerning legislation (the position of judges, etc.), p. 354
V. PLATO'S PHILOSOPHY OF ART 357
1. Supervision of art, p. 357. (Plato's artistic nature; his rejection of
Homer and the tragedians; his judgment concerning the Athenian theatre)
2. Purpose and true evaluation of art (the beautiful as expression of the
good), p. 360; formal conditions of beauty, p. 362 (Idea and Eros, p.
364; symmetry. Good and bad taste, p. 366)
3. Art as imitation, p. 366
4. Attempt at a Platonic poetics, p. 367

VI. PLATO'S THOUGHTS CONCERNING GOD 370
1. The concept of God a creation of the imagination, p. 370
2. Question concerning the immanence and transcendence of God, p.
371
3. Personality of God, p. 373
4. God as the highest Idea: the other Ideas as Ideas of divine purpose, p.
374
5. God bound by necessity, p. 376
6. The highest goal of divine creative activity, p. 378
7. God the measure of all things, p. 379
8. Plato's theodicy, p. 380
9. Court for trying heresies, p. 382
10. Man's relation to God, p. 384 (Prayer, p. 386; Eros, p. 387). Freedom
of the will (once more, intellectual determinism, eudemonism, and
morality), p. 389; conclusion, p. 390

CONTENTS
TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE 7
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION 9
PREFACE 13
INTRODUCTION 21
1. Plato's life, p. 21
2. His literary activity, p. 27
3. Summary statement of the contents of the book, p. 34
PART ONE THE DIALOGUES OF PLATO'S YOUTH AND EARLY
MANHOOD TO THE SECOND SICILIAN JOURNEY (367)
I THE ETHICAL CONTENT OF THE EARLY DIALOGUES 37
1. The Lesser Hippias, p. 37
2. The Laches, p. 40
3. The Protagoras, p. 42
4. The Charmides, p. 45
5. The Euthyphro, p. 46
6. The Apology, p. 47
7. The Crito, p. 48
8. The Gorgias, p. 49 (Comparison of the Protagoras and the Gorgias;
ethics as the doctrine of duties, of virtue, and of goods, pp. 57 f.)
9. The Greater Hippias, p. 61
10. The Euthydemus, p. 62
11. The Menexenus, p. 62
12. The Lysis, p. 63
13. The Symposium, p. 66
14. The Phaedo, p. 68
15. The Republic, p. 71
The constitution of the state and that of the soul, p. 73
The relation between virtue and happiness, p. 75
The Idea of the good, p. 80
Eros, p. 85

ارسال نظر آزاد است، اما اگر قبلا در بیان ثبت نام کرده اید می توانید ابتدا وارد شوید.
تجدید کد امنیتی